– a quality of various solutions, called bases, that naturalize acids to form salts, and that turn red litmus paper
Anion – a negatively charged ion, for example chloride (Cl-) or bicarbonate (HCO3-).
an alkaline solution that combats stomach acid, such as bicarbonate of soda in water or alkaline mineral waters.
water - purgative, or laxative, water.
Artesian well – a well in which water rises under pressure from a permeable
stratum of rock overlaid by impermeable rock.
Bicarbonate – a salt of carbonic acid.
equivalent – a standard used in evaluating water hardness which may actually be caused by a variety of compounds, such
as carbonates, bicarbonates, sulfates, chlorides or nitrates of calcium and magnesium. The calcium carbonate equivalent is
used so hardness due to various minerals can be expressed in chemically equivalent terms, and compared from one water to another.
– saturation with carbon dioxide. Under pressure, the gas in water becomes carbonic acid.
any substance which tends to produce cancer.
Catalyst – a substance that causes or accelerates a chemical change.
– a positively charges ion, such as Calcium (Ca++) or Sodium (Na+).
Cation exchange water softener – a
more specific name for the mechanical or ion exchange water softener. The ions exchanged are cations.
– water containing salts of iron.
Charcoal filter – device for removing dissolved gasses, such as chlorine,
from purified water.
Chemical water softener (precipitating) – a substance added to water that removed dissolved
calcium and magnesium salts by forming a precipitate, or undissolved solid. Municipal water treatment plants may use this
method of alleviating hardness. The precipitate is then removed by filtration. In home laundry, washing sodas and similar
products perform this water softening function. The draw back to home use is that there is no ready way to remove the precipitate,
which can attach itself to fabrics in the wash. Examples of this kind of softener are Climalene, Mel-O, Oakite, Perfex, sal
soda and washing soda. Soap by itself removes calcium and magnesium salts from water, but a sticky precipitate is left behind.
water softener (non-precipitating) – a substance added to water that softens by preventing calcium and magnesium ions
from reacting with soap, thereby preventing the formation of soap curd. This process is based on the softener's ability to
sequester calcium and magnesium ions; substances with this ability, most of which are in the polyphosphate family, are Calgon
and Spring Rain. This kind of water softener is often incorporated into formulae for laundry soaps and detergents.
of lime – a white powder used for disinfecting, which has been used to kill bacteria in water since 1909.
– also called trichloromethane, is a colorless, volatile, and possibly carcinogenic liquid which may appear in water
supplies treated with chlorine.
Cholera – a devastating disease of the digestive tract, characterized by diarrhea,
vomiting, and cramps. Often fatal.
Conditioned water – a term used to describe the product of various water treatments
or combinations of water treatments. Frequently used to refer to softened water.
Deionization – process of reducing
water to a non-mineral state by passing it over a bed of resins.
Deionized water – water from which both anions
and cations have been removed by an ion exchange process. Only those substances, which ionize in water, are removed by deionization.
Generally, deionized water is considered of higher quality than distilled water and is more economical to produce.
water – same as deionized water.
Dissolved solids – solid materials, such as sugars or salt, which are
dissolved. The materials may be ionized or non-ionized.
Ionized solids can be removed from the water by ion exchange.
water - water that has been purified by passing through an evaporation-condensation cycle. It contains small quantities of
dissolved solids. Multiple distilling will further lower the percentage of dissolved solids.
Diuretic – a substance
that causes the body to release excess fluids.
Ferruginous water – water containing salts of iron.
– a process, either naturally occurring of artificial, whereby water passes through filters and is depleted of certain
minerals or elements.
Fluoridated water – water that has fluoride added for the purpose of preventing tooth decay.
– a compound of fluorine, such as stannous fluoride, used in preventive dentistry.
Grain – a measure of
weight derived from the average weight of a dry grain of wheat. One grain weighs about 1/7000 of a pound. An aspirin tablet
weighs about 5 grains.
Ground water – water contained in saturated zones of the earth. This is the supply tapped
by wells and is the water source of springs.
Hard water – (See temporary hardness and permanent hardness.) Water
rich in calcium and magnesium salts, which causes soap to form curds. According to EPA studies, hard water suitable for drinking
may result in lower incidence of heart disease. (See also grains per gallon and calcium carbonate equivalent.)
– a particle with either positive or negative charge or charges. It can be made up of one element or group of elements,
for example, the calcium (Ca++) or bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions.
Ion exchange water softener – another name for mechanical
Ionization – a process whereby ions are separated and/or exchanged.
Lime scale –
the calcium carbonate precipitate which forms when temporary hard water is heated. Lime scale accumulates inside water heaters,
hot water pipes, water using appliances and cooking utensils. It has been estimated that 1/16 inch of lime scale on heating
equipment pipes will reduce heating efficiency by 16% and raise fuel costs proportionately.
Mechanical water softener
– a device for softening water in which the hardness ions (calcium and magnesium) are exchanged for another kind of
ion, usually sodium. The water that comes from the softener still contains dissolved minerals, but there are no calcium or
magnesium ions present. Mechanical water softeners are also called ion exchange, cation exchange, or "zeolite" water softeners.
filter – very fine filter used in filtration systems, especially in reverse osmosis.
Meteoritic water –
moisture precipitated from the atmosphere, such as rain, snow or hail.
Milligrams per liter (ml/l) – a metric
measure used in scientific and medical reports. It is approximately equal to parts per million (ppm).
– water that has large quantities of minerals, naturally collected by passing through various layers of earth and rocks
to the well or spring.
Municipal water – water supplied by a city for public use; tap water. Usually held in
Naturally soft water – ground, surface, or rain water sufficiently free of calcium and magnesium
salts so that no curd will form when soap is used.
Naturally sparkling – naturally carbonated.
– a method of sanitizing water by using ozone which is made by forcing compressed air through a high voltage arc into
Polyethylene Terephthalate, the popular high quality plastic bottle usually produced in smaller sizes (2-liters and under).
hardness – hardness due to sulfates, chlorides, and/or nitrates of calcium and/or magnesium. This hardness cannot be
removed by heating as can temporary hardness.
pH – a number denoting alkalinity or acidity. Numbers below 7.0
indicate acidity which increases as numbers become smaller. Numbers above 7.0 indicate alkalinity, which increases, as numbers
become larger. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14; the neutral point is 7. The pH scale is logarithmic, that is, each whole number
as the scale moves away from 7.0 is ten times more acid that pH 6.0 and pH 4.0 is ten times more acid that a 5.0 pH and 100
times more acid that a 6.0 pH. He values above 7.0 become more alkaline by the same logarithmic progression.
– a poisonous and carcinogenic chemical often found in municipal water supplies. Also known as carbolic acid, phenol
is a benzene derivative.
Potable water – drinking water.
ppm – abbreviation for parts per million.
Approximately equivalent to mg/liter.
Pure water – several conditions of water are referred to as "pure". Water
may be chemically pure, bacterialogically pure, or physically pure of suspended mater. Water may, foe example, be free of
bacteria and yet contain pyrogens, fever-forming organisms which are still not understood completely. The United States Pharmacopoeia's
most stringent definition for pure water is for injection, which is prepared for pharmaceutical companies. It is sold in very
small bottles at high prices. This water, made under controlled laboratory conditions, is non-pyrogenic. A sample is injected
into a group of live rabbits whose temperature is monitored over several days; if their temperature rises, the water is rejected.
Pure water may be prepared by ion exchange and ultra filtration sometimes followed by repeated distillation. Such water is
"hungry" and will even dissolve measurable amounts of silica from glass containers. The purest natural form of water would
be water that is held in the clouds, just before if falls to earth as rain. As the water falls through the earth's atmosphere
it collects gasses and dust particles. When the water penetrates the earth, it then collects minerals and other elements.
water – water that has a laxative effect. Radiological quality – the amount of radioactive materials a substances
Recycled wastewater – waste and sewage water which has been filtered and processed for reuse.
water – water processed by a combination of two or more of the following methods: cation exchange, filtration, or absorption.
The result is a water with a hardness of less than ½ grain per gallon, with iron and heavy metal content of less than 0.1
parts per million, and free from turbidity, color, flavors, and odors.
Reverse osmosis – process by which water
is reduced to a non-mineral state by passing through a plastic membrane under pressure, which separates the water from other
Soda water – a sparkling water made effervescent by a carbon dioxide charge, often containing salts
giving it an alkaline, or "soda" flavor.
Soft water – water sufficiently free of calcium and magnesium salts
that no curd will form when soap is used. Curd formation becomes evident when ½ grain of calcium and/or magnesium salts per
gallon of water are present. In general usage, soft water is a relative term. The Water Conditioning Foundation standards
consider 1 grain of hardness or less as soft. Municipal water treatment plants consider softening to 5 or 6 grains as the
optimum hardness reduction which can be economically obtained. And geological maps of natural water supplies record 3 ½ grains
per gallon or less as soft. Soft water may not be healthful for drinking, as it does not contain certain beneficial minerals.
water – water which was originally hard, but from which enough calcium and magnesium ions have been removed so that
no curd will form when soap is used. High in sodium chloride.
Spa – a resort visited by those who wish to recuperate
or revitalize their health. Spas are often built around a mineral or thermal spring.
Spring water – water which
flows naturally from an underground spring without the benefit of drilling or pumps.
Still water – flat, uncarbonated
Temporary hardness – hardness, caused by bicarbonates of calcium and /or magnesium, which are reduced
by heating the water. When heated, the bicarbonate ion is converted to a carbonate ion, the carbonate ion reacts with calcium
and magnesium ions and precipitates as insoluble calcium and magnesium salts. The precipitate is deposited as scale in hot
water heaters, hot water pipes, and cooking utensils.
Thermal water – hot water rising from deep within the earth
where heated rocks are present.
Toxin – organic poison found in living or dead organisms.
less that 0.01 ppm.
Trichloromethane – see chloroform.
Turbidity – suspended undissolved materials
in water, such as finely divided particles of sand, clay or microscopic organisms, which give color or cloudiness to the water.
Turbidity can be removed by filtration.
Typhoid fever – a disease characterized by enlarged intestines and ulcers,
due to the typhoid bacillus. Many cases are a result of consuming infected water.
Ultraviolet ray – invisible
rays beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum.
Water sample – to prepare a home water sample for laboratory
analysis, follow this procedure: allow untreated water to run from a faucet for several minutes; use a clean bottle that will
hold at least one pint and rinse the bottle several times with the water to be tested before filling it; rinse a non-metallic
lid well and cover the container tightly; give the water sample to a person or organization qualified to test it. Results
of the test will be stated in parts per million or grains per gallon.
Water treatment – process intended to achieve
one or more of the following: alleviate deficiencies such as color, turbidity, off flavors and odors; eliminate health hazards
such as toxic chemicals and disease causing microorganisms and viruses; make water more satisfactory for specialized purposes.
water softener – another name for an ion exchange, cation exchange, or mechanical water softener. Derived from the name
of the mineral zeolite, which was commonly used in the past as the ion exchange material in mechanical water softeners.