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Bottled Water Glossary

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Edited By Crimsonwolf

Bottled Water Glossary

Alkaline – a quality of various solutions, called bases, that naturalize acids to form salts, and that turn red litmus paper blue.

Anion – a negatively charged ion, for example chloride (Cl-) or bicarbonate (HCO3-).

Antacid – an alkaline solution that combats stomach acid, such as bicarbonate of soda in water or alkaline mineral waters.

Apparent water - purgative, or laxative, water.

Artesian well – a well in which water rises under pressure from a permeable stratum of rock overlaid by impermeable rock.

Bicarbonate – a salt of carbonic acid.

Calcium carbonate equivalent – a standard used in evaluating water hardness which may actually be caused by a variety of compounds, such as carbonates, bicarbonates, sulfates, chlorides or nitrates of calcium and magnesium. The calcium carbonate equivalent is used so hardness due to various minerals can be expressed in chemically equivalent terms, and compared from one water to another.

Carbonation – saturation with carbon dioxide. Under pressure, the gas in water becomes carbonic acid.

Carcinogen – any substance which tends to produce cancer.

Catalyst – a substance that causes or accelerates a chemical change.

Cation – a positively charges ion, such as Calcium (Ca++) or Sodium (Na+).

Cation exchange water softener – a more specific name for the mechanical or ion exchange water softener. The ions exchanged are cations.

Chalybeate water – water containing salts of iron.

Charcoal filter – device for removing dissolved gasses, such as chlorine, from purified water.

Chemical water softener (precipitating) – a substance added to water that removed dissolved calcium and magnesium salts by forming a precipitate, or undissolved solid. Municipal water treatment plants may use this method of alleviating hardness. The precipitate is then removed by filtration. In home laundry, washing sodas and similar products perform this water softening function. The draw back to home use is that there is no ready way to remove the precipitate, which can attach itself to fabrics in the wash. Examples of this kind of softener are Climalene, Mel-O, Oakite, Perfex, sal soda and washing soda. Soap by itself removes calcium and magnesium salts from water, but a sticky precipitate is left behind.

Chemical water softener (non-precipitating) – a substance added to water that softens by preventing calcium and magnesium ions from reacting with soap, thereby preventing the formation of soap curd. This process is based on the softener's ability to sequester calcium and magnesium ions; substances with this ability, most of which are in the polyphosphate family, are Calgon and Spring Rain. This kind of water softener is often incorporated into formulae for laundry soaps and detergents.

Chloride of lime – a white powder used for disinfecting, which has been used to kill bacteria in water since 1909.

Chloroform – also called trichloromethane, is a colorless, volatile, and possibly carcinogenic liquid which may appear in water supplies treated with chlorine.

Cholera – a devastating disease of the digestive tract, characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, and cramps. Often fatal.

Conditioned water – a term used to describe the product of various water treatments or combinations of water treatments. Frequently used to refer to softened water.

Deionization – process of reducing water to a non-mineral state by passing it over a bed of resins.

Deionized water – water from which both anions and cations have been removed by an ion exchange process. Only those substances, which ionize in water, are removed by deionization. Generally, deionized water is considered of higher quality than distilled water and is more economical to produce.

Demineralized water – same as deionized water.

Dissolved solids – solid materials, such as sugars or salt, which are dissolved. The materials may be ionized or non-ionized.

Ionized solids can be removed from the water by ion exchange.

Distilled water - water that has been purified by passing through an evaporation-condensation cycle. It contains small quantities of dissolved solids. Multiple distilling will further lower the percentage of dissolved solids.

Diuretic – a substance that causes the body to release excess fluids.

Ferruginous water – water containing salts of iron.

Filtration – a process, either naturally occurring of artificial, whereby water passes through filters and is depleted of certain minerals or elements.

Fluoridated water – water that has fluoride added for the purpose of preventing tooth decay.

Fluoride – a compound of fluorine, such as stannous fluoride, used in preventive dentistry.

Grain – a measure of weight derived from the average weight of a dry grain of wheat. One grain weighs about 1/7000 of a pound. An aspirin tablet weighs about 5 grains.

Ground water – water contained in saturated zones of the earth. This is the supply tapped by wells and is the water source of springs.

Hard water – (See temporary hardness and permanent hardness.) Water rich in calcium and magnesium salts, which causes soap to form curds. According to EPA studies, hard water suitable for drinking may result in lower incidence of heart disease. (See also grains per gallon and calcium carbonate equivalent.)

Ion – a particle with either positive or negative charge or charges. It can be made up of one element or group of elements, for example, the calcium (Ca++) or bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions.

Ion exchange water softener – another name for mechanical water softener.

Ionization – a process whereby ions are separated and/or exchanged.

Lime scale – the calcium carbonate precipitate which forms when temporary hard water is heated. Lime scale accumulates inside water heaters, hot water pipes, water using appliances and cooking utensils. It has been estimated that 1/16 inch of lime scale on heating equipment pipes will reduce heating efficiency by 16% and raise fuel costs proportionately.

Mechanical water softener – a device for softening water in which the hardness ions (calcium and magnesium) are exchanged for another kind of ion, usually sodium. The water that comes from the softener still contains dissolved minerals, but there are no calcium or magnesium ions present. Mechanical water softeners are also called ion exchange, cation exchange, or "zeolite" water softeners.

Membrane filter – very fine filter used in filtration systems, especially in reverse osmosis.

Meteoritic water – moisture precipitated from the atmosphere, such as rain, snow or hail.

Milligrams per liter (ml/l) – a metric measure used in scientific and medical reports. It is approximately equal to parts per million (ppm).

Mineral water – water that has large quantities of minerals, naturally collected by passing through various layers of earth and rocks to the well or spring.

Municipal water – water supplied by a city for public use; tap water. Usually held in a reservoir.

Naturally soft water – ground, surface, or rain water sufficiently free of calcium and magnesium salts so that no curd will form when soap is used.

Naturally sparkling – naturally carbonated.

Ozonization – a method of sanitizing water by using ozone which is made by forcing compressed air through a high voltage arc into the water.

PET - Polyethylene Terephthalate, the popular high quality plastic bottle usually produced in smaller sizes (2-liters and under).

Permanent hardness – hardness due to sulfates, chlorides, and/or nitrates of calcium and/or magnesium. This hardness cannot be removed by heating as can temporary hardness.

pH – a number denoting alkalinity or acidity. Numbers below 7.0 indicate acidity which increases as numbers become smaller. Numbers above 7.0 indicate alkalinity, which increases, as numbers become larger. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14; the neutral point is 7. The pH scale is logarithmic, that is, each whole number as the scale moves away from 7.0 is ten times more acid that pH 6.0 and pH 4.0 is ten times more acid that a 5.0 pH and 100 times more acid that a 6.0 pH. He values above 7.0 become more alkaline by the same logarithmic progression.

Phenol – a poisonous and carcinogenic chemical often found in municipal water supplies. Also known as carbolic acid, phenol is a benzene derivative.

Potable water – drinking water.

ppm – abbreviation for parts per million. Approximately equivalent to mg/liter.

Pure water – several conditions of water are referred to as "pure". Water may be chemically pure, bacterialogically pure, or physically pure of suspended mater. Water may, foe example, be free of bacteria and yet contain pyrogens, fever-forming organisms which are still not understood completely. The United States Pharmacopoeia's most stringent definition for pure water is for injection, which is prepared for pharmaceutical companies. It is sold in very small bottles at high prices. This water, made under controlled laboratory conditions, is non-pyrogenic. A sample is injected into a group of live rabbits whose temperature is monitored over several days; if their temperature rises, the water is rejected. Pure water may be prepared by ion exchange and ultra filtration sometimes followed by repeated distillation. Such water is "hungry" and will even dissolve measurable amounts of silica from glass containers. The purest natural form of water would be water that is held in the clouds, just before if falls to earth as rain. As the water falls through the earth's atmosphere it collects gasses and dust particles. When the water penetrates the earth, it then collects minerals and other elements.

Purgative water – water that has a laxative effect. Radiological quality – the amount of radioactive materials a substances possesses.

Recycled wastewater – waste and sewage water which has been filtered and processed for reuse.

Refined water – water processed by a combination of two or more of the following methods: cation exchange, filtration, or absorption. The result is a water with a hardness of less than grain per gallon, with iron and heavy metal content of less than 0.1 parts per million, and free from turbidity, color, flavors, and odors.

Reverse osmosis – process by which water is reduced to a non-mineral state by passing through a plastic membrane under pressure, which separates the water from other elements.

Soda water – a sparkling water made effervescent by a carbon dioxide charge, often containing salts giving it an alkaline, or "soda" flavor.

Soft water – water sufficiently free of calcium and magnesium salts that no curd will form when soap is used. Curd formation becomes evident when grain of calcium and/or magnesium salts per gallon of water are present. In general usage, soft water is a relative term. The Water Conditioning Foundation standards consider 1 grain of hardness or less as soft. Municipal water treatment plants consider softening to 5 or 6 grains as the optimum hardness reduction which can be economically obtained. And geological maps of natural water supplies record 3 grains per gallon or less as soft. Soft water may not be healthful for drinking, as it does not contain certain beneficial minerals.

Softened water – water which was originally hard, but from which enough calcium and magnesium ions have been removed so that no curd will form when soap is used. High in sodium chloride.

Spa – a resort visited by those who wish to recuperate or revitalize their health. Spas are often built around a mineral or thermal spring.

Spring water – water which flows naturally from an underground spring without the benefit of drilling or pumps.

Still water – flat, uncarbonated water.

Temporary hardness – hardness, caused by bicarbonates of calcium and /or magnesium, which are reduced by heating the water. When heated, the bicarbonate ion is converted to a carbonate ion, the carbonate ion reacts with calcium and magnesium ions and precipitates as insoluble calcium and magnesium salts. The precipitate is deposited as scale in hot water heaters, hot water pipes, and cooking utensils.

Thermal water – hot water rising from deep within the earth where heated rocks are present.

Toxin – organic poison found in living or dead organisms.

Trace – less that 0.01 ppm.

Trichloromethane – see chloroform.

Turbidity – suspended undissolved materials in water, such as finely divided particles of sand, clay or microscopic organisms, which give color or cloudiness to the water. Turbidity can be removed by filtration.

Typhoid fever – a disease characterized by enlarged intestines and ulcers, due to the typhoid bacillus. Many cases are a result of consuming infected water.

Ultraviolet ray – invisible rays beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum.

Water sample – to prepare a home water sample for laboratory analysis, follow this procedure: allow untreated water to run from a faucet for several minutes; use a clean bottle that will hold at least one pint and rinse the bottle several times with the water to be tested before filling it; rinse a non-metallic lid well and cover the container tightly; give the water sample to a person or organization qualified to test it. Results of the test will be stated in parts per million or grains per gallon.

Water treatment – process intended to achieve one or more of the following: alleviate deficiencies such as color, turbidity, off flavors and odors; eliminate health hazards such as toxic chemicals and disease causing microorganisms and viruses; make water more satisfactory for specialized purposes.

Zeolite water softener – another name for an ion exchange, cation exchange, or mechanical water softener. Derived from the name of the mineral zeolite, which was commonly used in the past as the ion exchange material in mechanical water softeners.

                                                                                                                                                                                

Crimsonwolf

Heathen's Kitchen Compendium